Being overweight or obese are well-known risk factors for multiple chronic diseases, successful weight loss can have a positive impact on not only medical treatment, healthcare costs but also quality of life for many patients (1).
There are multiple diets suggested by weight loss experts such as low calorie diets, low carbohydrate diets, very-low calorie diets, very-low carbohydrate diets, and fat-restriction diets (1). Each of these diets result in specific actions on appetite and food preferences, therefore comparing dietary studies and trials in order to work out which diets result in the safest, sustainable weight loss is difficult (1). However the following foods have all been backed by scientific studies and found to be weight loss friendly;
- Whole Eggs
It was once thought that eating eggs can increase cholesterol but more recent studies are showing that eggs actually don’t adversely affect blood cholesterol levels nor do they cause heart attacks (2, 3). Eggs are considered nutrient dense as they are high in protein, healthy fats and can increase satiety all while being low in calories. Studies have found eggs in place of bagels for breakfast, can increase satiety, reduce overall food consumption and increase weight loss (4, 5).
- Leafy Greens
These include vegetables such as kale, spinach, Swiss chards and more. Each of these leafy greens have properties which make them ideal for weight loss – low calories, low carbohydrates, high in fibre. Eating these vegetables can be an easy way to increase the amount and volume of your meal, without significantly increasing calories. Many studies show that meals which have a low energy density can make people eat less calories overall (6). Leafy greens are nutrient dense as they consist of multiple vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and even calcium which is known to aid fat-burning (7).
- Lean Beef and Chicken Breast
Although it is understood that processed meat is unhealthy, there are studies which back unprocessed red meat in that it does not raise the risk of heart disease or diabetes (8, 9). Red meat also has a very weak correlation with cancer in men to no correlation at all whatsoever in women (10, 11).
Meat is considered weight loss friendly as it is high in protein – the most fulfilling nutrient. Research shows that high protein diets can cause your body to burn up to one hundred more calories in a day (12, 13) and can reduce cravings for late night snacks (14) as well as causing weight loss equivalent to a pound per week (15).
Fish is not only satisfying, but also contains relatively few calories. Most fish are protein rich and consist of healthy fats and other important nutrients, such as iodine which is important for proper thyroid function which can keep metabolism levels optimal (16). Salmon for example, is loaded with Omega-3 fatty acids which are known to reduce inflammation which is prominent in patients of obesity and metabolic diseases (17, 18).
- Chilli Peppers
Chilli peppers contain a substance known as capsaicin, this substance has been proven to reduce appetite and increase fat burning (19, 20) and is even sold as a substance form or in commercial weight loss supplements as a weight loss aid. A study found that people who are not accustomed to eating peppers regularly had a reduction in appetite and increased fat burning, however these effects were absent in people who regularly eat peppers which indicates a tolerance can build up (21).
Each of these foods is considered to be weight loss friendly as they take different metabolic pathways in the body. This can lead to vast differences on the effects on hunger, hormones and how many calories our bodies are burning.
For more information on what to eat for weight loss, see our nutrition and weight management course here; http://www.futurefit.co.uk/future-fit-training/courses/nutrition-and-weight-management/
- Strychar, I., 2006. Diet in the management of weight loss.Canadian Medical Association Journal, 174(1), pp.56-63.
- Fernandez, M.L., 2006. Dietary cholesterol provided by eggs and plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations.Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care, 9(1), pp.8-12
- Rong, Y., Chen, L., Zhu, T., Song, Y., Yu, M., Shan, Z., Sands, A., Hu, F.B. and Liu, L., 2013. Egg consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.Bmj, 346, p.e8539.
- Vander Wal, J.S., Marth, J.M., Khosla, P., Jen, K.C. and Dhurandhar, N.V., 2005. Short-term effect of eggs on satiety in overweight and obese subjects.Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 24(6), pp.510-515.
- Vander Wal, J.S., Gupta, A., Khosla, P. and Dhurandhar, N.V., 2008. Egg breakfast enhances weight loss.International journal of obesity (2005), 32(10), p.1545.
- Ello-Martin, J.A., Roe, L.S., Ledikwe, J.H., Beach, A.M. and Rolls, B.J., 2007. Dietary energy density in the treatment of obesity: a year-long trial comparing 2 weight-loss diets.The American journal of clinical nutrition, 85(6), pp.1465-1477.
- Teegarden, D., 2003. Calcium intake and reduction in weight or fat mass.The Journal of nutrition, 133(1), pp.249S-251S.
- Micha, R., Wallace, S.K. and Mozaffarian, D., 2010. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus.Circulation, 121(21), pp.2271-2283.
- Rohrmann, S., Overvad, K., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B., Jakobsen, M.U., Egeberg, R., Tjønneland, A., Nailler, L., Boutron-Ruault, M.C., Clavel-Chapelon, F., Krogh, V. and Palli, D., 2013. Meat consumption and mortality-results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.BMC medicine, 11(1), p.63.
- Alexander, D.D. and Cushing, C.A., 2011. Red meat and colorectal cancer: a critical summary of prospective epidemiologic studies.Obesity reviews, 12(5).
- Alexander, D.D., Weed, D.L., Cushing, C.A. and Lowe, K.A., 2011. Meta-analysis of prospective studies of red meat consumption and colorectal cancer.European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 20(4), pp.293-307.
- Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S., 2008. Protein intake and energy balance.Regulatory peptides, 149(1), pp.67-69.
- Veldhorst, M.A., Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. and Westerterp, K.R., 2009. Gluconeogenesis and energy expenditure after a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet.The American journal of clinical nutrition, 90(3), pp.519-526.
- Leidy, H.J., Tang, M., Armstrong, C.L., Martin, C.B. and Campbell, W.W., 2011. The effects of consuming frequent, higher protein meals on appetite and satiety during weight loss in overweight/obese men.Obesity, 19(4), pp.818-824.
- Weigle, D.S., Breen, P.A., Matthys, C.C., Callahan, H.S., Meeuws, K.E., Burden, V.R. and Purnell, J.Q., 2005. A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations.The American journal of clinical nutrition, 82(1), pp.41-48.
- Kapil, U., 2007. Health consequences of iodine deficiency.Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 7(3), p.267.
- Wall, R., Ross, R.P., Fitzgerald, G.F. and Stanton, C., 2010. Fatty acids from fish: the anti‐inflammatory potential of long‐chain omega‐3 fatty acids.Nutrition reviews, 68(5), pp.280-289.
- Lumeng, C.N. and Saltiel, A.R., 2011. Inflammatory links between obesity and metabolic disease.The Journal of clinical investigation, 121(6), p.2111.
- Lejeune, M.P., Kovacs, E.M. and Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S., 2003. Effect of capsaicin on substrate oxidation and weight maintenance after modest body-weight loss in human subjects.British Journal of Nutrition, 90(3), pp.651-659.
- Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S., Smeets, A. and Lejeune, M.P.G., 2005. Sensory and gastrointestinal satiety effects of capsaicin on food intake.International journal of obesity, 29(6), p.682.
- Ludy, M.J. and Mattes, R.D., 2011. The effects of hedonically acceptable red pepper doses on thermogenesis and appetite.Physiology & behavior, 102(3), pp.251-258.
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